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Full text of "Mathura A District Memoir"

IV.-PARGANA   MAT.
THE pargana of Mat is the most northern of the three on the east of the
Jamuna, and is a long, narrow, straggling tract of country lying between the-
river and the Aligarh border. As it abounds In game of 'various kinds—black
buck, wild boar, and water-fowl—it has considerable attractions for the sports-
man ; but in every other point of view it is a singularly uninviting part of the
district. There are no large to\vns? no places of legendary or historical interest,
no roads, no local trade or manufacture, and no resident families of any distinc-
tion. The soil also is generally poor, the -water bad, and—except quite at the
north—there are few groves of trees to relieve the dosty monotony of the land-
scape. As if to enhance the physical disadvantages of the locality by an arti-
ficial inconvenience, the tahsili has been fixed at the mean little village of Mat
in the extreme south, on the very borders of the Maha-ban parg&na; though the
merest glance at the map will show that Surir—a place with a larger population
than Mat—is the natural centre of the division. Its recognition in that charac-
ter would be an immense boon both to Government officials and to the agricul-
turist. The present arrangement dates from a time when the pargaaa was of
very different extent, and Mat easily accessible from all parts of it. For, til!
1860, it included the whole of tha Kaya sub-division to the south ; while in the
north, Noh-jlril formed an entirely separate tahsili. This was more in accordance
with the division of territory existing in the reign of the Emperor Alvbar^ when
the whole of Mat proper came under Mah£-ban, and Uoh-jhil made part of
pargana Noh in the Kol Sarkar, Immediately before the cession of 1804, the
latter was the estate of General Perron ; while Mat, ivith Maha- oan3 Sa'dabad,
and Sah-pau was held by General Duboigne.
As now constituted, the pargana has a population of 95,446, and an
area of 223 square miles, comprising 141 villages, -\\liich form 153 separate
estates. Of these, the great majority are bhaiyichari, and thus it conies
about that the richest resident landlords are the members of a Br&hman family
quite of the yeoman class, living at Clihahiri, a hamlet of -Mat They are by
name Pola Bam and Parasuram, sons of Radha, and Kalhan, son of Bal-kishor,
and have jointly an assessable income of Bs, 9,216 a year, derived from lands
in Mat, Bijauli, Barnaul, Jaiswa, Jawara, Kasithi and Samauli. They have
lately been at considerable expense in building a school in their native place.
Three other men of substance, of much the sasae social position, are Lachhxnanr